- •Time-restricted eating (TRE) is a dietary strategy to improve glycaemic control.
- •TRE reduced 24-h total area under the curve from continuous glucose monitoring.
- •TRE reduced time above range by ∼10% and consequently increased time in range.
- •TRE improved postprandial glucose measures.
Examine the effect of 5 d/wk, 9-h time-restricted eating (TRE) protocol on 24-h glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Nineteen adults with T2D (10 F/9 M; 50 ± 9 y, HbA1c 7.6% (60 mmol/mol), BMI ∼34 kg/m2) completed a pre-post non-randomised trial comprising of a 2-wk Habitual monitoring period followed by 9-h (10:00–19:00 h) TRE for 4-wk. Glycaemic control was assessed via continuous glucose monitoring (CGM; for mean 24-h glucose concentrations, 24-h total area under the curve (AUC) and glucose variability metrics), with dietary records and physical activity monitoring. Changes in CGM measures, dietary intake and physical activity were assessed with linear mixed-effects models.
TRE did not alter dietary energy intake, macronutrient composition or physical activity, but reduced the daily eating window (−2 h 35 min, P < 0.001). Compared to the Habitual period, 24-h glucose concentrations (mean, SD) and AUC decreased in the 4-wk TRE period (mean: -0.7 ± 1.2 mmol/L, P = 0.02; SD: -0.2 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P = 0.01; 24-h AUC: -0.9 ± 1.4 mmol/L⋅h−1 P = 0.01). During TRE, participants spent 10% more time in range (3.9–10.0 mmol/L; P = 0.02) and 10% less time above range (>10.0 mmol/L; P = 0.02).
Adhering 5 d/wk. to 9-h TRE improved glycaemic control in adults with T2D, independent of changes in physical activity or dietary intake.
Clinical Trial Registration: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12618000938202.
Abbreviations:AUC (Area under the curve), BMI (Body mass index), CGM (Continuous glucose monitor), CV (Coefficient of variation), eTRE (Early time restricted eating), FSL (FreeStyle Libre), HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin), iAUC (Incremental area under the curve), LMM (Linear mixed model), MAD (Median absolute deviation), sGVP (Standardised glycaemic variability percentage), T2D (Type 2 diabetes), TAR (Time above range (hyperglycaemia)), TIR (Time in range (normoglycaemia)), TRE (Time restricted eating)
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Published online: February 02, 2023
Accepted: January 23, 2023
Received in revised form: January 16, 2023
Received: September 4, 2022
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