The effect of probiotic and synbiotic use on glycemic control in women with gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Published:November 17, 2022DOI:


      • Probiotics and/or synbiotics are promising as a potential therapy for GDM.
      • The use of probiotics in women with GDM decreased fasting plasma glucose.
      • The use of probiotics and synbiotics in women with GDM reduced HOMA-IR.



      To investigate the impact of probiotic/synbiotic use on glycemic control in women with gestational diabetes.


      We searched the PubMed, Medline, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Dergipark, and Council of Higher Education Thesis Center databases through March 2022. Screening was performed according to the population, intervention, comparison, outcome and study type. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and meta-analyses (PRISMA-2020) statement.


      Eight RCTs involving 551 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotic use in women with gestational diabetes significantly decreased fasting blood glucose (mean difference: −1.43; 95 % CI: −2.78 to −0.09, p: 0.04) and serum insulin (mean difference: −3.66; 95 % CI: −5.04 to −2.27, p < 0.001). Moreover, the use of probiotics and synbiotics significantly reduced the HOMA-IR level compared to the control group (probiotic group: mean difference: −0.74; 95 % CI: −1.05 to −0.44, p < 0.001; synbiotic group: mean difference: −0.68; 95 % CI: −1.26 to −0.09, p: 0.02).


      The use of probiotics in women with GDM reduced fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, and HOMA-IR levels. In addition, the use of synbiotics decreased HOMA-IR. Probiotic/synbiotic use is promising as a potential therapy to assist in glycemic control in gestational diabetes. Further high-quality studies are required to determine their safety.


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