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Demographic and clinical characteristics of a Spanish population of people living with type 1 diabetes who practice nonprofessional sports: The DIABESPORT survey

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally to this study.
    Manuel A. Gargallo-Fernández
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Madrid, Spain.
    Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Madrid, Spain

    Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally to this study.
    Cristina Tejera-Pérez
    Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally to this study.
    Affiliations
    Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Ferrol (CHUF/SERGAS), A Coruña, Spain

    Epigenomics in Endocrinology and Nutrition Group, Epigenomics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS/SERGAS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Javier Escalada-San Martin
    Affiliations
    Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

    CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN) , Spain

    Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally to this study.
Published:October 30, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2022.110137

      Abstract

      Aim

      To determine the characteristics of people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) who practice sports, the support they receive, and the way in which they manage their disease during sports.

      Methods

      An observational cross-sectional study designed as a web-based survey released through social media was carried out, directed to physically active people with T1D.

      Results

      A total of 342 subjects completed the survey (16 children; 67.5% males). The duration of living with T1D was 18.6 ± 11.4 years. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin concentration (HbA1c) was 6.7 ± 0.8%, and the mean time in range (TIR) was 72.9 ± 15.8%. Only 27.2% started sports activity following the diagnosis of T1D. The most frequently used basal insulin was insulin degludec (38.6%). The usual treatment modification before doing sports consisted of bolus reduction (42.5%) or only the adjustment of nutritional supplements (19.7%). In cases of long-acting insulin users, the basal dose usually remained unchanged during sports. One-quarter of the participants were insulin pump users, and of these, 12.5% always disconnected the pump during physical activities. Severe hypoglycemia on the day of physical activity was experienced by 5% of the participants in the last 6 months. One-third reported a lack of support from their physician, and 61% had learned to manage glycemic control during sports by themselves.

      Conclusions

      This study highlights the adjustments made by people living with T1D during sports practice, and the lack of support received from healthcare professionals.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      AEDD (Asociación Española para el Deporte con Diabetes (Spanish Association for Sports with Diabetes)), AT1D (Active people with type 1 diabetes who practice sports), BMI (Body mass index), CSII (Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion), MID (Multiple insulin doses), PA (physical activity), SD (Standard deviation), TBR (Time below range), TIR (Time in range), T1D (Type 1 diabetes mellitus)
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