Diabetic Foot Ulcer Disease in African Continent: ‘From clinical care to Implementation’ – Review of diabetic foot in last 60 years – 1960 to 2020

  • Zulfiqarali G. Abbas
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.at: P. Box 21361, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    Affiliations
    Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Abbas Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
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  • Andrew JM Boulton
    Affiliations
    Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology & Gastroenterology, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

    Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Florida, USA
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Published:November 23, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.109155

      Abstract

      The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally and the greatest potential increases in diabetes will occur in Africa. Data suggest that these increases is associated with rapid demographic, sociocultural and economic transitions. There will be a parallel increase in the complications of diabetes and among the various complications those related to diabetic foot disease are associated with the highest morbidity and mortality.
      Diabetic Peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common cause of diabetic foot complications in African countries; however, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) appears to increase, possibly a result of rising urbanization. Search done for the past six decades (1960 to 2020) on all foot complications.
      Rates of complications of diabetic foot in last six decades varied by country as follow: DPN: 4–90%; PAD: 0–77%; foot ulcers: 4–61%; amputation rates: 3–61% and high mortality rates reaching to 55%, patients who presented late with infection and gangrene
      Educational and prevention programmes are required to curb the growing complications of diabetic foot ulcers in Africa among patients and health care workers. Secondly, it is imperative that governments across the African continent recognise the clinical and public health implications of diabetic foot disease in persons with diabetes.

      Keywords

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