Intermittent fasting versus continuous energy-restricted diet for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome for glycemic control: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

  • Xue Wang
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuai fu yuan Wang fu jing Dong cheng District, Beijing 100730, China
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  • Qifei Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuai fu yuan Wang fu jing Dong cheng District, Beijing 100730, China
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  • Yan Liu
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuai fu yuan Wang fu jing Dong cheng District, Beijing 100730, China
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  • Hua Jiang
    Affiliations
    Institute for Emergency and Disaster Medicine, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No. 32 Yi Huan Lu Xi Er Duan, Chengdu 610072, Sichuan Province, China

    Emergency Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Medicine Center, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No. 32 Yi Huan Lu Xi Er Duan, Chengdu 610072, Sichuan Province, China

    Department of Acute Care Surgery, Emergency Medicine Center, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No. 32, Yi Huan Lu Xi Er Duan, Chengdu 610072, Sichuan Province, China
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  • Wei Chen
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuai fu yuan Wang fu jing Dong cheng District, Beijing 100730, China
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      Abstract

      Aims

      To compare the safety of intermittent fasting (IF) with that of continuous energy-restricted diets (CERD) in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome who were overweight or obese and assess their effects on glycemic control and weight loss.

      Materials and methods

      We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, and SINOMED databases up to September 13, 2020. The major outcome was glycemic control and secondary outcomes were change in weight, fasting insulin, and lipid profile.

      Results

      Of 84 retrieved studies, 5 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, four studies comprising 355 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Based on changes in HbA1c (-0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.27 to 0.16) and fasting plasma glucose (-0.27, 95% CI −0.76 to 0.22), IF and CERD had similar effects on glycemic control. Moreover, IF had a better effect on weight loss (-1.70, 95% CI −3.28 to −0.11 kg). Patients in both groups experienced similar improvements in fasting insulin and lipid profile as well as similar hypoglycemic events.

      Conclusions

      IF is a safe diet pattern and could be implemented for patients with T2DM or metabolic syndrome. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to verify the effectiveness and safety of IF in patients with T2DM.

      Keywords

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