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Combined exercise training improves specific domains of cognitive functions and metabolic markers in middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • João Gabriel Silveira-Rodrigues
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627, São Luiz, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil.
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
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  • Washington Pires
    Affiliations
    Sports Center of Federal University of Ouro Preto, St. Two, MG 35400-000, Brazil
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  • Patrícia Ferreira Gomes
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
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  • Pedro Henrique Madureira Ogando
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
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  • Bruno Pereira Melo
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
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  • Ivana Montandon Soares Aleixo
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
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  • Danusa Dias Soares
    Affiliations
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
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Published:February 15, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108700

      Highlights

      • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus accelerates the rate of cognitive decline.
      • Physical exercise is effective to attenuates age-related metabolic and cognitive impairments.
      • Combined training reduces insulin resistance, arterial pressure, and resistin levels.
      • Combined training also improved selective domains of cognitive functions.
      • Subjects with lower cognitive performance in the pre-training are better responders.

      Abstract

      Aim

      To investigate the effects of 8-weeks of CT on specific domains of cognitive function, metabolic and cardiovascular parameters of subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).

      Methods

      31 sedentary T2DM adults and older divided into CT (3x/week, during 8-week, n = 16) or Control group (CONT, n = 15). Before and after the intervention, a cognitive task battery, blood samples, and functional tests were assessed.

      Results

      CT improved inhibitory control (d = 0.89), working memory (d = 0.88), cognitive flexibility (d = 0.67) and attention/concentration (d = 0.64) in T2DM subjects. However, memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed (d < 0.1, p > 0.05 for all) were not changed. The CT-induced improvements on global cognitive z-score (r = −0.51; p < 0.001) were inversely correlated to cognitive screening scores. Moreover, CT improved functional performance (p < 0.05) and reduced insulin levels (p = 0.04). Although there was no statistical significance, there were a clinically relevant reduction of peripheral insulin sensitivity (d = 0.51, p = 0.09), resistin levels (d = 0.53, p = 0.08), diastolic (d = 0.63, p = 0.09) and mean blood pressure (d = 0.50, p = 0.09). Conversely, no changes were observed for glucose, fructosamine and blood lipids (d < 0.2 for all).

      Conclusion

      CT partially reversed the negative effects of T2DM on specific cognitive domains possibly by amelioration of metabolic regulation. Moreover, lower cognitive scores may modulate the responsivity of cognitive function to CT.

      Keywords

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