Risk of amputation associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors: A meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials


      Amputation has been known to be a rare adverse event of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. It remains unclear whether the SGLT2 inhibitor as a class or specific categories of the SGLT2 inhibitors are linked with an increased risk of amputation. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association between the amputation risk and the use of SGLT2 inhibitors. The main outcome measure was the risk of amputation. Multiple databases were searched up to February 2020 and data extraction was performed. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which reported risk of amputation with SGLT2 inhibitors over non-SGLT2 inhibitors or placebo. The risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane bias tool. The initial search yielded 1,873 citations and a total of five RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. The five included studies evaluated a total of 39,067 patients with diabetes mellitus, including 21,395 patients on SGLT2 inhibitors. The incidence rate of amputation ranged from 0.36 to 3.18% in the SGLT2 inhibitor group and from 0% to 2.87% in the control group. Follow up duration ranged from 24 weeks to 4.2 years. Use of SGLT2 inhibitors was not associated with significant increase in the risk of amputation as compared with controls (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 0.92–1.87, I2 = 75%). Subgroup analysis showed that neither canagliflozin, empagliflozin, nor dapagliflozin was associated with increased risk of amputation. In conclusion, our meta-analysis showed that neither canagliflozin nor other SGLT2 inhibitors increase the risk of amputation.


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