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Beyond basal-bolus insulin regimen: Is it still the ultimate chance for therapy in diabetes?

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors share first authorships.
    Dario Giugliano
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Hospital, Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Piazza L. Miraglia 2, 80138 Naples, Italy.
    Footnotes
    1 These authors share first authorships.
    Affiliations
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors share first authorships.
    Giuseppe Bellastella
    Footnotes
    1 These authors share first authorships.
    Affiliations
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors share first authorships.
    Maria Ida Maiorino
    Footnotes
    1 These authors share first authorships.
    Affiliations
    Diabetes Unit, University Hospital, Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
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  • Katherine Esposito
    Affiliations
    Diabetes Unit, University Hospital, Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors share first authorships.
Published:November 09, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107922
      All people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) need insulin to survive, with the hope to cut or slow down the devastating long-term micro and macrovascular complications. About one fourth of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) uses insulin, either as the only antyhyperglycemic drug, or in combination with other glucose-lowering medications [
      • Lipska K.J.
      • Yao X.
      • Herrin J.
      • et al.
      Trends in drug utilization, glycemic control, and rates of severe hypoglycemia, 2006–2013.
      ,
      • Montvida O.
      • Shaw J.
      • Atherton J.J.
      • Stringer F.
      • Paul S.K.
      Long-term trends in antidiabetes drug usage in the U.S.: real-world evidence in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
      ]. Every day, about 6 million diabetic people in the U.S. inject insulin to control their hyperglycemia.
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