Diabetes and Ramadan: Utility of flash-glucose monitoring derived markers of glycaemic control and comparison with glycosylated haemoglobin



      Flash glucose monitoring (FGM)-derived markers of glucose control and variability and laboratory measured HbA1c among patients with diabetes on insulin in context of Ramadan fasting (RF) were examined and compared.


      FGM data on insulin-treated patients (n = 20, age 42.3 ± 11.4 years; 18 male, 2 female; 13 with type 1 and 7 with type 2 diabetes) who fasted during Ramadan were used to calculate Q-score as an indicator of glycaemia before, during and after RF. Post-hoc analysis in a group of patients (n = 12) who had HbA1c available and appropriate for these periods was performed. Other relevant data were extracted from patient records.


      Mean glucose (9.6 ± 1.32 v 10.78 ± 1.64 mmol/l; P < 0.0001) and Q-score increased significantly with Ramadan fasting and reduced after Ramadan. Post-hoc subgroup analysis showed a significant rise in eA1c (7.2 ± 0.4%; 55.0 ± 4.4 mmol/mol v 7.7 ± 0.5%; 61.0 ± 5.5 mmol/mol) but not in laboratory HbA1c with Ramadan fasting; eA1c reduced after Ramadan (P = 0.018).


      Ramadan fasting was associated with a deterioration in overall glucose control and time in hyperglycaemia in insulin-treated patients. FGM-derived markers are useful and a preferable alternative to HbA1c in Ramadan studies.
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