Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score as a screening tool for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and dysglycaemia among early middle-aged adults in a large-scale European cohort. The Feel4Diabetes-study

Published:February 20, 2019DOI:



      To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the FINDRISC for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dysglycaemia (i.e. the presence of prediabetes or T2DM) among early middle-aged adults from vulnerable groups in a large-scale European cohort.


      Participants were recruited from low-socioeconomic areas in high-income countries (HICs) (Belgium-Finland) and in HICs under austerity measures (Greece-Spain) and from the overall population in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) (Bulgaria-Hungary). Study population comprised of 2116 parents of primary-school children from families identified at increased risk of T2DM, based on parental self-reported FINDRISC. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC) and the optimal cut-offs of FINDRISC that indicate an increased probability for undiagnosed T2DM or dysglycaemia were calculated.


      The AUC-ROC for undiagnosed T2DM was 0.824 with optimal cut-off ≥14 (Se = 68%, Sp = 81.7%) for the total sample, 0.839 with optimal cut-off ≥15 (Se = 83.3%, Sp = 86.9%) for HICs, 0.794 with optimal cut-off ≥12 (Se = 83.3%, Sp = 61.1%) for HICs under austerity measures and 0.882 with optimal cut-off ≥14 (Se = 71.4%, Sp = 87.8%) for LMICs. The AUC-ROC for dysglycaemia was 0.663 with optimal cut-off ≥12 (Se = 58.3%, Sp = 65.7%) for the total sample, 0.656 with optimal cut-off ≥12 (Se = 54.5%, Sp = 64.8%) for HICs, 0.631 with optimal cut-off ≥12 (Se = 59.7%, Sp = 62.0%) for HICs under austerity measures and 0.735 with optimal cut-off ≥11 (Se = 72.7%, Sp = 70.2%) for LMICs.


      FINDRISC can be applied for screening primarily undiagnosed T2DM but also dysglycaemia among vulnerable groups across Europe, considering the use of different cut-offs for each subpopulation.



      BMI (body mass index), FINDRISC (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score), FPG (fasting plasma glucose), T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), HICs (high-income countries), IFG (impaired fasting glucose), IGT (impaired glucose tolerance), LMICs (low/middle-income countries), OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test), ROC (receiver operating characteristic)
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