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Comparison of nutrient intakes in South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus and controls living in the United States

  • Meena Shah
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors at: Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Center for Human Nutrition, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75235-9052, United States. (A. Garg). Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas 76129, United States (M. Shah).
    Affiliations
    Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

    Center for Human Nutrition, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

    Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX, United States
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  • Chandna Vasandani
    Affiliations
    Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

    Center for Human Nutrition, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Beverley Adams-Huet
    Affiliations
    Division of Biostatistics, Department of Clinical Sciences, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Abhimanyu Garg
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors at: Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Center for Human Nutrition, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75235-9052, United States. (A. Garg). Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas 76129, United States (M. Shah).
    Affiliations
    Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

    Center for Human Nutrition, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
    Search for articles by this author
Published:February 04, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.01.016

      Abstract

      Aims

      Despite having a high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), little is known about the relationship between nutrient intakes and T2DM in South Asians (SA) in the U.S. In addition, the available data are limited to a few macronutrients and collected using subjective measures. Therefore, we compared macro- and micro-nutrient intakes of SA migrants with and without T2DM using an objective measure.

      Methods

      SA in the U.S. with T2DM (n = 44) and controls (n = 33) reported their dietary intake using image-assisted dietary assessment method. They took pictures of all foods/drinks consumed on two weekdays and one weekend day. Age, gender distribution, and body mass index were similar across the two groups.

      Results

      SA with T2DM, as compared to controls, consumed less total energy (mean difference: 499 kcal/d; p < .0001), linoleic acid (3.6 g/d; p = .003), dietary fiber (8.6 g/d; p < .0001), vitamin A (262 µg/d; p = .003), vitamin E (2.7 mg/d; p = .007), calcium (133 mg/d; p = .01), magnesium (116 mg/d; p < .0001), zinc (1.4 mg/d; p = .004), potassium (754 mg/d; p < .0001), and β-carotene (1761 µg/d; p = .03). SA with T2DM, as compared to controls, were significantly more likely not to meet the requirements for linoleic acid, dietary fiber, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and potassium (p < .05).

      Conclusions

      SA with T2DM, compared to controls, consume less total energy and have lower consumption of many nutrients associated with reduced risk of T2DM. Dietary interventions to reduce risk for T2DM are warranted in SA.

      Keywords

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