- •Insulin resistance (IR) is now common in patients with Type 1 diabetes.
- •Retinopathy and microvascular disease are associated with IR in multiple studies.
- •Maculopathy associated with IR in Type 1 DM is a novel finding of this study.
- •IR has similar predictive value for retinal pathology as duration of disease and HbA1c.
- •Prospective studies examining IR and complications over time are required.
- Insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes: what is 'double diabetes' and what are the risks?.Diabetologia. 2013; 56: 1462-1470
- Etiological approach to characterization of diabetes type: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.Diabetes Care. 2011; 34: 1628-1633
- Temporal patterns in overweight and obesity in Type 1 diabetes.Diabet Med. 2010; 27: 398-404
- DCCT/EDIC Research Group. The effect of excess weight gain with intensive diabetes mellitus treatment on cardiovascular disease risk factors and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus: results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study (DCCT/EDIC) study.Circulation. 2013; 127: 180-187
- The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 977-986
- Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.Diabetologia. 1985; 28: 412-419
- Use and abuse of HOMA modeling.Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 1487-1495
- Early signs of atherosclerosis are associated with insulin resistance in non-obese adolescent and young adults with type 1 diabetes.Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012; 11: 145
- Association of insulin sensitivity to lipids across the lifespan in people with Type 1 diabetes.Diabet Med. 2011; 28: 148-155
- Can clinical factors estimate insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes?.Diabetes. 2000; 49: 626-632
- Development, validation and use of an insulin sensitivity score in youths with diabetes: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study.Diabetologia. 2011; 54: 78-86
- Glycemia (or, in women, estimated glucose disposal rate) predict lower extremity arterial disease events in type 1 diabetes.Metabolism. 2002; 51: 248-254
- Nephropathy in type 1 diabetes: a manifestation of insulin resistance and multiple genetic susceptibilities? Further evidence from the Pittsburgh epidemiology of diabetes complication study.Kidney Int. 2002; 62: 963-970
- Insulin resistance-related factors, but not glycemia, predict coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes: 10-year follow-up data from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study.Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 1374-1379
- Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and complication risk in type 1 diabetes: “double diabetes” in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.Diabetes Care. 2007; 30: 707-712
- Estimated glucose disposal rate in assessment of the metabolic syndrome and microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94: 3530-3534
- Utility of the estimated glucose disposal rate as a marker of microvascular complications in young adults with type 1 diabetes.Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012; 96: e70-e72
- Use of the estimated glucose disposal rate as a measure of insulin resistance in an urban multiethnic population with type 1 diabetes.Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 2280-2285
- Estimated insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes.J Pediatr. 2013; 162: 297-301
- The association between insulin resistance and proliferative retinopathy in type 1 diabetes.Rom J Intern Med. 2015; 53: 261-266
- Insulin resistance is associated with all chronic complications in type 1 diabetes.J Diabetes. 2016; 8: 220-228
- Diabetic macular Edema: pathophysiology and novel therapeutic targets.Ophthalmology. 2015; 122: 1375-1394
World Health Organisation. Waist Cirumference and Waist: Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. Geneva 2008.
Wong TC. ICO Guidelines for Diabetic Eye Care. http://www.icoph.org/: International Council of Ophthalmology 2016.
- Improving accuracy of grading and referral of diabetic macular edema using location and extent of hard exudates in retinal photography.J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015; 10: 262-270
- Targeting the pathophysiology of diabetic macular Edema.Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 2484-2485
- Insulin resistance and diabetic macular oedema in type 2 diabetes mellitus.Br J Ophthalmol. 2010; 94: 1230-1232
- Maculopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2: associations with risk factors.Br J Ophthalmol. 2000; 84: 871-876
- Insulin resistance and associated factors in patients with Type 1 Diabetes.Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2014; 6: 131
- Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular Edema.Pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies. 2003; 26: 2653-2664