Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Hyo-Jin Kim
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Seongbeom Cho
    Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • David R. Jacobs Jr.
    Affiliations
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
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  • Kyong Park
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749, Republic of Korea. Tel.: +82 53 810 2879; fax: +82 53 810 4768.
    Affiliations
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors contributed equally to this work.

      Abstract

      Aims

      Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components.

      Methods

      We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19–65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007–2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption.

      Results

      We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15–1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11–1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09–1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10–1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions.

      Conclusions

      Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer.

      Keywords

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