Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue

  • George Dimitriadis
    Correspondence
    Correspondence to: George Dimitriadis, MD, DPhil, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine and Research Institute, “Attikon” University Hospital, 1 Rimini Street, 12462 Haidari, Greece. Tel.: +30 210 5831255; fax: +30 210 5326454
    Affiliations
    2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Research Institute and Diabetes Center, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece
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  • Panayota Mitrou
    Affiliations
    Hellenic National Center for the Research, Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications, Athens, Greece
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  • Vaia Lambadiari
    Affiliations
    2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Research Institute and Diabetes Center, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece
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  • Eirini Maratou
    Affiliations
    Hellenic National Center for the Research, Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications, Athens, Greece
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  • Sotirios A. Raptis
    Affiliations
    2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Research Institute and Diabetes Center, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece

    Hellenic National Center for the Research, Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications, Athens, Greece
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      Abstract

      The major effects of insulin on muscle and adipose tissue are: (1) Carbohydrate metabolism: (a) it increases the rate of glucose transport across the cell membrane, (b) it increases the rate of glycolysis by increasing hexokinase and 6-phosphofructokinase activity, (c) it stimulates the rate of glycogen synthesis and decreases the rate of glycogen breakdown. (2) Lipid metabolism: (a) it decreases the rate of lipolysis in adipose tissue and hence lowers the plasma fatty acid level, (b) it stimulates fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in tissues, (c) it increases the uptake of triglycerides from the blood into adipose tissue and muscle, (d) it decreases the rate of fatty acid oxidation in muscle and liver. (3) Protein metabolism: (a) it increases the rate of transport of some amino acids into tissues, (b) it increases the rate of protein synthesis in muscle, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues, (c) it decreases the rate of protein degradation in muscle (and perhaps other tissues).
      These insulin effects serve to encourage the synthesis of carbohydrate, fat and protein, therefore, insulin can be considered to be an anabolic hormone.

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