Advertisement

Prevalence and incidence of mental illness in diabetes: A national population-based cohort study

  • Chun-Jen Huang
    Affiliations
    Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for articles by this author
  • Shing-Yaw Wang
    Affiliations
    Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mei-Hsuan Lee
    Affiliations
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for articles by this author
  • Herng-Chia Chiu
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, San Ming District, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan. Tel.: +886 7 3121101x2648; fax: +886 7 3134761.
    Affiliations
    Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Graduate Institute of Healthcare Administration, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Background

      : This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and incidence of mental illness among diabetic patients in Taiwan.

      Methods

      : Study subjects were identified by at least one service claim for ambulatory or inpatient care with a principal diagnosis of mental illness, and at least two claims for ambulatory care or one claim for inpatient care with a principal diagnosis of diabetes from 2000 to 2004.

      Results

      : The one-year prevalence of mental illness among diabetic patients was 20.6% in 2000, and the cumulative prevalence increased to 42.2% in 2004. Diabetic patients had a higher cumulative prevalence and annual incidence than the general population throughout the observation period. A higher prevalence was associated with age ≥45 and low income, and a lower prevalence with male gender and residing in rural areas. Cox regression analysis revealed that a higher incidence was associated with female gender, age ≥45, and low income.

      Conclusions

      : The prevalence and annual incidence density of mental illness in diabetic patients were significantly higher than in the general population. Females had higher prevalence and incidence density of mental illness among diabetic patients. Mental illness in diabetic patients was more prevalent in elderly females of low income, and less in rural areas.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Banerjea R.
        • Pogach L.M.
        • Smelson D.
        • Sambamoorthi U.
        Mental illness and substance use disorders among women veterans with diabetes.
        Womens Health Issues. 2009; 19: 446-456
        • Werner R.M.
        • Greenfield S.
        • Fung C.
        • Turner B.J.
        Measuring quality of care in patients with multiple clinical conditions: summary of a conference conducted by the Society of General Internal Medicine.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2007; 22: 1206-1211
        • Rothman A.A.
        • Wagner E.H.
        Chronic illness management: what is the role of primary care?.
        Ann Intern Med. 2003; 138: 256-261
        • Banerjea R.
        • Sambamoorthi U.
        • Smelson D.
        • Pogach L.M.
        Chronic illness with complexities: mental illness and substance use among Veteran clinic users with diabetes.
        Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2007; 33: 807-821
        • Piette J.D.
        • Kerr E.A.
        The impact of comorbid chronic conditions on diabetes care.
        Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 725-731
        • Egede L.E.
        • Zheng D.
        • Simpson K.
        Comorbid depression is associated with increased health care use and expenditures in individuals with diabetes.
        Diabetes Care. 2002; 25: 464-470
        • Anderson R.J.
        • Freedland K.E.
        • Clouse R.E.
        • Lustman P.J.
        The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis.
        Diabetes Care. 2001; 24: 1069-1078
        • Egede L.E.
        • Zheng D.
        Independent factors associated with major depressive disorder in a national sample of individuals with diabetes.
        Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 104-111
        • Hsu J.H.
        • Chien I.C.
        • Lin C.H.
        • Chou Y.J.
        • Chou P.
        Incidence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based study.
        Can J Psychiatry. 2011; 56: 19-26
        • Chien I.C.
        • Chang K.C.
        • Lin C.H.
        • Chou Y.J.
        • Chou P.
        Prevalence of diabetes in patients with bipolar disorder in Taiwan: a population-based national health insurance study.
        Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010; 32: 577-582
        • Gau S.S.
        • Chung C.H.
        • Gau C.S.
        A pharmacoeconomic analysis of atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol in first-episode schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.
        J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008; 28: 271-278
        • Chien I.C.
        • Chou Y.J.
        • Lin C.H.
        • Bih S.H.
        • Chou P.
        • Chang H.J.
        Prevalence and incidence of schizophrenia among national health insurance enrollees in Taiwan, 1996–2001.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004; 58: 611-618
      1. National Insurance Research Database.
        National Health Research Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan2002
        • Chinese Hospital Association
        ICD-9-CM English-Chinese Dictionary.
        Chinese Hospital Association Press, Taipei2000
        • Lin C.C.
        • Lai M.S.
        • Syu C.Y.
        • Chang S.C.
        • Tseng F.Y.
        Accuracy of diabetes diagnosis in health insurance claims data in Taiwan.
        J Formos Med Assoc. 2005; 104: 157-163
        • Liptzin B.
        • Regier D.A.
        • Goldberg I.D.
        Utilization of health and mental health services in a large insured population.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1980; 137: 553-558
        • Huang C.J.
        • Chiu H.C.
        • Lee M.H.
        • Wang S.Y.
        Prevalence and incidence of anxiety disorders in diabetic patients: a national population-based cohort study.
        Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011; 33: 8-15
        • Hebert P.L.
        • Geiss L.S.
        • Tierney E.F.
        • Engelgau M.M.
        • Yawn B.P.
        • McBean A.M.
        Identifying persons with diabetes using Medicare claims data.
        Am J Med Qual. 1999; 14: 270-277
      2. Kleinbaum D.G. Kupper L.L. Morgensten H. Epidemiologic Research. John Wiley & Sons, New York1982
        • Zahid N.
        • Asghar S.
        • Claussen B.
        • Hussain A.
        Depression and diabetes in a rural community in Pakistan.
        Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008; 79: 124-127
        • Blazer D.G.
        • Moody-Ayers S.
        • Craft-Morgan J.
        • Burchett B.
        Depression in diabetes and obesity: racial/ethnic/gender issues in older adults.
        J Psychosom Res. 2002; 53: 913-916
        • Lloyd C.E.
        • Dyer P.H.
        • Barnett A.H.
        Prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in a diabetes clinic population.
        Diabet Med. 2000; 17: 198-202
        • Peyrot M.
        • Rubin R.R.
        Levels and risks of depression and anxiety symptomatology among diabetic adults.
        Diabetes Care. 1997; 20: 585-590
        • Connell C.M.
        • Davis W.K.
        • Gallant M.P.
        • Sharpe P.A.
        Impact of social support, social cognitive variables, and perceived threat on depression among adults with diabetes.
        Health Psychol. 1994; 13: 263-273
        • Lustman P.J.
        • Griffith L.S.
        • Clouse R.E.
        • Cryer P.E.
        Psychiatric illness in diabetes mellitus. Relationship to symptoms and glucose control.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 1986; 174: 736-742
        • Kruse J.
        • Schmitz N.
        • Thefeld W.
        On the association between diabetes and mental disorders in a community sample: results from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey.
        Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 1841-1846
        • Compton 3rd, W.M.
        • Helzer J.E.
        • Hwu H.G.
        • Yeh E.K.
        • McEvoy L.
        • Tipp J.E.
        • et al.
        New methods in cross-cultural psychiatry: psychiatric illness in Taiwan and the United States.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148: 1697-1704
        • Hwu H.G.
        • Yeh E.K.
        • Chang L.Y.
        Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Taiwan defined by the Chinese Diagnostic Interview Schedule.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989; 79: 136-147
        • Gavard J.A.
        • Lustman P.J.
        • Clouse R.E.
        Prevalence of depression in adults with diabetes. An epidemiological evaluation.
        Diabetes Care. 1993; 16: 1167-1178
        • Sloan D.M.
        • Yokley J.
        • Gottesman H.
        • Schubert D.S.
        A five-year study on the interactive effects of depression and physical illness on psychiatric unit length of stay.
        Psychosom Med. 1999; 61: 21-25
        • Tellez-Zenteno J.F.
        • Cardiel M.H.
        Risk factors associated with depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
        Arch Med Res. 2002; 33: 53-60
        • Sevincok L.
        • Guney E.
        • Uslu A.
        • Baklaci F.
        Depression in a sample of Turkish type 2 diabetes patients.
        Eur Psychiatry. 2001; 16: 229-231
        • Kahn R.S.
        • Wise P.H.
        • Kennedy B.P.
        • Kawachi I.
        State income inequality, household income, and maternal mental and physical health: cross sectional national survey.
        BMJ. 2000; 321: 1311-1315
        • Jackson-Triche M.E.
        • Greer Sullivan J.
        • Wells K.B.
        • Rogers W.
        • Camp P.
        • Mazel R.
        Depression and health-related quality of life in ethnic minorities seeking care in general medical settings.
        J Affect Disord. 2000; 58: 89-97
        • Blazer D.G.
        • Kessler R.C.
        • McGonagle K.A.
        • Swartz M.S.
        The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: the National Comorbidity Survey.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1994; 151: 979-986