Research Article| Volume 68, SUPPLEMENT 1, S2-S9, June 2005

Metabolic syndrome in relationship to type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis


      Metabolic syndrome affects approximately one quarter of population in developed countries. Its presence is a major risk for development of both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is 2–3 times higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome than in age-matched controls. Most important components of metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance with or without glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, hypertension, prothrombotic state and proinflammatory state. Early identification of subjects with metabolic syndrome is very important, since they represent a target group for multiple lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. Lifestyle interventions, antiobesity drugs and drugs increasing insulin sensitivity prevented development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance in randomized trials. Treatment of atherogenic dyslipidaemia to the therapeutic goals defined for diabetic patients seems reasonable and both statins and fibrates could be used based on evidence from clinical trials. Treatment of hypertension should also aim for target levels similar to those in diabetic patients. Using drugs affecting renin-angiotensin II axis, as first choice seems reasonable based on evidence from clinical trials showing the ability of these drugs to prevent T2DM and decrease albuminuria.


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