Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and hypoglycemic safety of gliclazide versus other insulinotropic agents

      Highlights

      • In RCTs, gliclazide lowered HbA1c more than other oral insulinotropic agents.
      • Patients taking a DPP-4i or gliclazide have similarly low risks of Hypoglycemia.
      • National guidelines advocate gliclazide over other SUs for better CV and hypoglycemic safety.

      Abstract

      Aims

      Sulfonylureas are well positioned in treating type 2 diabetes, after lifestyle modification and metformin. The sulfonylurea gliclazide was given preference over glibenclamide in older people with type 2 diabetes in the World Health Organization model list of essential medicines. Consequently, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the efficacy and safety of gliclazide versus other oral insulinotropic agents (sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and glinides) was performed.

      Methods

      Two reviewers searched MEDLINE for studies of ≥12 weeks duration in adults with type 2 diabetes. The key search word was “gliclazide”, filtered with “randomized controlled trial”, “human” and “19+ years”. Differences were explored in mean change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline (primary outcome) and risk of hypoglycemia (secondary outcome) between gliclazide and other oral insulinotropic agents; and other sulfonylureas.

      Results

      Nine out of 181 references reported primary outcomes, of which 7 reported secondary outcomes. Gliclazide lowered HbA1c more than other oral insulinotropic agents, with a weighted mean difference of −0.11% (95%, CI −0.19 to −0.03%, P = 0.008, I2 = 60%), though not more than other sulfonylureas (−0.12%; 95%, CI −0.25 to 0.01%, P = 0.07, I2 = 77%). Risk of hypoglycemia with gliclazide was not different to other insulinotropic agents (RR 0.85; 95%, CI 0.66 to 1.09, P = 0.20, I2 = 61%) but significantly lower than other sulfonylureas (RR 0.47; 95%, CI 0.27 to 0.79, P = 0.004, I2 = 0%).

      Conclusion

      Compared with other oral insulinotropic agents, gliclazide significantly reduced HbA1c with no difference regarding hypoglycemia risk. Compared with other sulfonylureas, HbA1c reduction with gliclazide was not significantly different, but hypoglycemia risk was significantly lower.

      Keywords

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